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Title: Lifted flames

Description: The pictures show turbulent jet visualization (Re = 4100, methane) through Mie scattering (instantaneous, green) and flame emission (1/30 s average, blue).

a) Nonreacting, jet seed is alumina.

b) Lifted flame, jet seed is alumina.

c) Lifted flame, co-flow seed is glycerol-water fog.

The axial view is about 50 nozzle diameters or 24 cm.

Credits: M. G. Mungal

References: Muniz, L. and Mungal, M. G., Instantaneous Flame-Stabilization Velocities in Lifted-Jet Diffusion Flames, Combustion and Flame, 111, 1997, 16-31.

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